Dark Ages of Scotland
In the early middle ages, the situation in what is now Scotland was chaotic. Borders were uncertain and subject to constant change. However, in general, Scotland consisted of four separate kingdoms or tribal areas:· Dalriada inhabited by Scots· Strathclyde inhabited by Britons· Pictish Territory inhabited by Picts· Northumbria inhabited by Angles·The early Scottish kings did not rule over the nation known today as Scotland and were referred to as King of Scots or King of Dalriada; i.e., King of the Scottish people living in Dalriada. Scottish and Pictish families began intermarrying in the 8th century; and their territories were often ruled by the same king.The monarchy of Scotland evolved from this union, known as the Kingdom of Alba with the rulers referred to as King of Alba. By the late 9th century, the Kingdom of Alba began absorbing the kingdoms of the Britons and Angles. Thus, through intermarriage and conquest, the Scottish Kings of Dalriada emerged as the overall Kings of Scotland. The arms of the Kings of Scotland are described as “Or, a lion rampant gules armed and langued, azure within a double treasure flory and counterflory of the second” which means “a gold shield with a red lion, his forepaws in the air and his tongue and claws blue, with a double red border with fleur-de-lis.”The Scots of Dalriada claimed a legendary antiquity beginning with Gaythelos, son of a King of Greece who went to Egypt during the time of Moses where he married the eponymous Scoti, daughter of the Pharaoh. Gaythelos, Scoti, and their family emigrated to Spain and eventually several groups of their descendants emigrated to Ireland; the final group under Simon Brek, whose grandson led a colony from Ireland to northern Britain and named it “Scotia”. In the year 330 BC, these Scots elected as their king Fergus, son of Ferehard; and they remained in Scotland until 360 AD when they were driven back to Ireland by the Picts and Britons. In the 5th century, they returned to Scotia under the leadership of Fergus, son of Erc. Or so the story goes.History knows nothing of the Scots earlier than about 500 AD, but at this point, the name of Fergus MorMacErc (Fergus, son of Erc) emerges from the mists of legend as the King of Scots in Dalriada. Thus, it is with Fergus that we will begin this genealogical record.
Kings of Dalriada
In early medieval Scotland, under the custom of tanistry, it was the eldest and/or ablest male of the royal house, and not the heir of line, that inherited the throne. This meant that any energetic male connected with the royal line could assert a claim to the throne. The following is a genealogical record and not a true list of the Kings of Dalriada.
Ercc, King of Dal Riata in North Western Ireland. Died in 474. Ercc is said to be a son of Eochaid Muinremur, King of Dal Riata; and is said to have had several sons including Loarn and Fergus.
Fergus, King of Dalriada. Died circa 501. Fergus established the Irish kingdon of Dalraida in what is now Argyle, Scotland. He is thought to have ruled for about three years in succession to his brother Loarn.
Domangart, King of Dalriada. Died circa 506, married Feldelm Foltchain, said to be a daughter of Brion, son of Eochaid Mugmedon. Brion was a half-brother of Niall of the Nine Hostages, a High King of Ireland in the 5th century.
Gabhran, King of Dalriada. Died circa 559. Married to Ingenach or Lleian, a daughter of Brychan.
Aedan, King of Dalriada. Died circa 608 after ruling for about 37 years. Aedan is said to have been a cousin of St. Columba by whom he was consecrated.
Eochaid I Buide, King of Dalriada. Also Eochu Buide; Died circa 630. Eochaid was a younger son of Aedan, and succeeded as King of Dalriada becuase all his older brothers had been killed.
Domnall Brecc, King of Dalriada. Died at the Battle of Strathcarron circa 642
Domongart, who did not reign. Died (killed) circa 673
Eochaidh II, King of Dalriada. Died (killed) circa 697 after ruling about three years.
Eochaidh III, King of Dalriada. Died circa 733 after ruling about twelve years.
Aedh Find “The White”, King of Dalriada. Died in 778 after ruling for about 30 years.
Eochaid “The Poisonous”, King of Dalriada. Ruled after 780. Eochaid is said to have married to Unuistice, a Princess of the Picts.
Alpin of Kintyre, King of Dalriadad died (killed fighting the Picts in Galloway) circa 837 after ruling about three years. His son:· Kenneth I MacAlpin, mentioned next.
Kings of Alba
Under the rules of Tanistry, it was the eldest and/or ablest male of the extended royal family, and not necessarily the heir of line, that inherited the throne as shown below:(1) ALPIN of KINTYRE (d. 837)(2) KENNETH MacALPIN (839-59)(3) DONALD (I) (859-62)(4) CONSTANTINE (862-77)(5) AEDH Eochaid m. Rùn of Strathclyde (877-78)(6) EOCHA (889-900)(6) GIRIC (900-43)(7) DONALD (II) (879-89)(8) CONSTANTINE (II) (879-89)(9) MALCOLM (I) (943-54)(10) INDULF (954-62)(11) DUF (962-66)(12) CULEN (971-95)(13) KENNETH (II) (966-71)(14) CONSTANTINE (III) (997-1005)(15) KENNETH (III) (995-97)(16) MALCOLM (II) (1005-34) Beoedhe Bethoc m. Crinan Finlay m. Donada Gruoch(17) DUNCAN (I) Gillecomgain m.1 Gruoch m.2(18) MACBETH (m. MACBETH) (1034-40)(19) LULACH (1040-57)(20) MALCOLM (III) (1057-58)(21) DONALD (III) (1058-93)(1093-97)
Kenneth (Cináed) MacAlpin, King of Alba. Kenneth united the Scots and the Picts with the establishment of the Kindom of Alba, which comprised Dalriada and the Kingdoms of the Picts. Many of the details of his reign have been lost, but he probably began his rise to power circa 839 and finally defeated his last rivals ten years later. Died: 859 at Forteviot, Perthshire and interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland. Kenneth MacAlpin had the following sons:Constantine I, mentioned next.Aedh (Ethus) “Swift-Foot” who was King of Alba 877 – 878Eochaid MacAlpin who married Rùn Macarthgail, King of Strathclyde.Their son: Eocha ruled jointly with his cousin Giric as Kings of Alba 879 – 889
Constantine I, King of Alba Constantine acceded in 862 and was beheaded or killed in a battle against the Danes at Inverdorat, the Black Cove, Angus in 877. He was interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland. Constantine had a son:Donald II, mentioned next.
Donald II, King of Alba Donald acceded in 889 and fought the Viking invaders. He died in 900 at Dunfother in battle and was interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland. Donald had a son:Malcolm (I) mentioned next.
Malcolm I, King of AlbaMalcolm acceded in 943, was killed in battle in 954 by rebels from Moray and interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland. Malcolm had the following children:Dubh or Duf who was King of Alba 962 – 966, and was killed by his third cousin Culen who then ruled as King of Alba 966 – 971. (Culen in turn was killed by the King of Strathclyde, whose daughter he had kidnapped.) Dubh’s great granddaughter was Gruoch who married Macbeth. Gruoch was Shakespeare’s “Lady Macbeth.”Kenneth II, mentioned next.
Kenneth II, King of Alba. Kenneth acceded in 971. He acknowledged Edgar as King of England, and was in return given Lothian. However, Kenneth invaded Northumbria in 994, was defeated, and lost Lothian. He was killed in 995 at Finela’s Castle, Fettercain and interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland Kenneth married a princess of Leinster and had the following children:· Malcolm II, mentioned next.· Dungal
Malcolm II, King of Alba. Malcolm acceded on March 25, 1005. He formed an alliance with King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde, and with Owen’s help he regained Lothian in 1018. Malcolm didn’t have any sons; and to ensure the succession of his grandson Duncan, he killed all the sons of his cousin Kenneth III who had been King of Alba 997 – 1005. He died on November 25, 1034 at Glamis Castle, Angus and was interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland Malcolm married an Irishwoman from Ossory, and they had the following daughters:· Dovada who married Finlay, Mormær (Earl or Thane) of Moray. They had a son:o Macbeth (of Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”)· Bethoc or Beatrix, Heiress of Scone, mentioned next.· a daughter who married Sigurd the Stout, Earl of Orkney. Their son:o Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney who married Ingibiorg, a daughter of Jarl Finn Arnason.After Thorfinn’s death circa 1056, Ingibiorg married second to Malcolm III Cænnmor. (See Generation Twenty-two)
Bethoc, Heiress of Scone Bethoc married before 1008 to Crinan, Mormaær of Atholl and Abbot of Dunkeld, and they had the following children:· Duncan I, mentioned next.· Maldred, Lord of Allerdale, who married Edith, dau. of Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland.· two daughters, one of whom married Sigurd, Earl of Orkney.
Duncan I “the Gracious”, King of Scotland Duncan was born circa 1001 and he acceded on November 25, 1034. He added Strathclyde to the kingdom, and is thus considered to be the first king of a united Scotland. His reign, however, was a period of disastrous wars and internal strife; and ended on August 14, 1040 when he was defeated and killed in battle at Bothganowan, Elgin by Macbeth, Mormær of Ross and Moray who then became king. Duncan’s remains were interred at the Isle of Iona, Scotland. Despite Shakespeare’s depiction to the contrary, Macbeth was an honest monarch who was generous to the church; and as a grandson of Malcolm II, had as legitimate a claim to the throne as did Duncan. As well, Macbeth’s wife Gruoch was a greatX2 granddaughter of Malcolm I. Duncan’s wife, on the other hand, was a cousin of Siward, the Viking Earl of Northumbria; which helps explain why Siward assisted Duncan’s sons in defeating Macbeth. In all fairness, it should be borne in mind that Shakespeare based his work on Raphael Holinshed’s Chronicles and that he did not intend Macbeth to be an historical documentary, but rather an entertaining play.Duncan married circa 1030 to Ælflaed (Sybil), a cousin of Siward, Earl of Northumbria and they had the following children:· Malcolm III Cænnmor, mentioned next.· Donald Bane who was King of Scotland (1093 – 1097) along with his nephew Edmund. (See Scotland: Donald Bane)· Margaret· Mælmuir, Earl of Atholl, born circa 1035
Malcolm III Cænnmor, King of Scotland was also known as Malcolm MacDuncan. Born: about 1031 Acceded: April 25, 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire died: November 13, 1093 at Alnwick Castle and interred at Escorial, Madrid, Spain “Cænnmor” means “big head” or “big chief”. Malcolm defeated and killed MacBeth in 1057, but Lulach, Lady MacBeth’s son by her first marriage, ruled for a few months before Malcolm killed him, too. During Malcolm’s reign the Norman Conquest of England occurred, and feudal society began to migrate northwards into Scotland. Malcolm married first about 1066 to Ingibiorg, a daughter of Jarl Finn Arnason and widow of Thorfinn, Earl of Caithness. (See Generation Nineteen) and they had the following children:· Duncan (II) who deposed Donald Bane briefly and was King of Scotland May – November 1094· Malcolm· DonaldMalcolm married second in 1068 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland to St. Margaret the Exile who was descended from the Saxon Kings of Wessex andEngland including Ælfred the Great. It is through this marriage that later kings and queens of Scotland and England can claim descent from the Saxon Kings. (See England, Generation Twenty-one)Malcolm and St. Margaret had the following children:· Edward, died 1093· Edmund I, King of Scotland (1094 – 1097) along with with Donald Bane (1093 – 1097)· Ethelred, Abbot of Dunkeld· Edgar, King of Scotland (1097 – 1107)· Alexander I the Fierce, King of Scotland (1107 – 1124)· Matilda (Edith) of Scotland who married King Henry (I) of England (See Normandy, Generation Eleven)· David I the Saint of Scotland, mentioned next.· Mary
David I the Saint of Scotland, King of Scotland Born about 1084 Acceded on April 23, 1124 Died on May 24, 1153, at Carlisle, Cumbria and interred atDunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland Under David’s reign and the reigns of his brothers Edgar and Alexander before him, the Anglo-Norman feudal system and culture became more established in Scotland. The traditional system of tribal land tenure was abolished during the reign of David. He is known as “Saint David of Scotland”, and his feast day in May 24. He married in 1113 to Matilda (Maud) of Huntington, a great niece of William the Conqueror. (See Normandy, Generation Nine) Mathilda had a previous marriage to Simon de Saint Liz, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton who died in 1111. (See DeQuincy,Generation One) David and Matilda had the following children:· Malcolm who died young.· Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, mentioned next.· Daughters Claricia and Hodierna who died unmarried.
Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland Born about 1114 Died before his father on June 12, 1152 and interrred at Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire, married in 1139 to Adelaide de Warren, daughter of William de Warenne, Earl of Warren and Surrey. (See Warren, Generation Four and Capet, GenerationFifteen.) Henry and Adelaide had the following children:· Malcolm IV “the Maiden”, King of Scotland 1153 – 1165· William I “the Lion” of Scotland, King of Scotland 1165 – 1214· Margaret who married first to Conan de Bretagne, Earl of Richmond and secondly to Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford.· Ada who married in 1161 to Florent, Count of Holland· David, Earl of Huntingdon, mentioned next.· Maud who died young· Isabella who married Robert de Ros· Marjory who married Gilchrist, 4th Earl of Angus; their daughter:Beatrix who married Walter Stewart. (See Scotland: Stewart, Generation Six)· Margaret who married John de Lindsay
David, Earl of Huntingdon, Northumberland, Lennox, Carlise, Doncaster, Garioch and Cambridge. Born about 1144 Died on June 17, 1219 David married on August 26, 1190, to Matilda de Keveliock of Chester and they had the following children:· Robert of Huntingdon who is said to have “died young”. Stories, television programmes and movies suggest that this son of the Earl of Huntingdon became the legendary outlaw Robin Hood. (For his equally legendary girlfriend Maid Marian see Fitzwalter, Generation Three) This story seems to have its origin in a rare play: “The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon, afterwards called Robin Hood of merrie Sherwoode; with his love to chaste Matilda, the Lord Fitz-Walter’s daughter, afterwards his fair Maid Marian.” Black letter, 1601 4to. See Richard Thomson: An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta,London, 1829, pages 505 – 507 for further details.· Margaret who married in 1209 to Alan, Lord of Galloway who died in 1234. (See DeQuincy, Generation Four) They had a daughter:Devorgilla of Galloway (d. January 28, 1289/90 who married (1233) John de Baliol (d. 1269); their children:John Baliol, King of Scotland 1292 – 1296Alianora de Baliol who married Sir John Comyn, “The Black Comyn”, one of the 13 claimants to the throne of Scotland in 1291 based on this marriage and his descent from Donald Bane. (See Scotland: Donald Bane) Their son:· Sir John Comyn, “The Red Comyn #2”, had a claim to the throne of Scotland through both his mother and father. He was murdered by Robert the Bruce (See Generation Twenty-nine below) on February 10, 1306 at the Church of the Grey Friars, Dumfries.· Isobella le Scot, mentioned next.· John le Scot, Earl of Chester· Maud· Ada· Henry· Henry of Stirling· Henry of Brechin· Ada· David
Isobella le Scot Born: 1206 Died: 1251 Married to Robert de Bruce, Lord Annandale (See Scotland: Bruce); and they had a son:· Robert de Bruce, Lord of Annandale, mentioned next.
Robert de Bruce, Lord of Annandale Born: circa 1220 Died: 1295 Robert was one of the 13 claimants to the Throne in 1291. He married first on May 12, 1240 to Isabel de Clare, daughter of Magna Charta Surety Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. (See Normandy, Generation Sixteen) Robert and Isabel had a son:Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, mentioned next.
Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick and Lord of Annadale, died: 1304 Married in 1271 at Turnberry Castle to Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, daughter and heiress of Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick and Margaret Stewart. (See Scotland: Stewart, Generation Six) Robert and Marjorie had the following children:· Mary Bruce· Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, mentioned next.· Edward Bruce, King of Ireland 1316 – 1318.In 1314, Robert the Bruce won a major victory at Bannockburn over the English who had drawn on Ireland for soldiers and supplies. The Bruces saw in the invasion of Ireland a chance to weaken the English, free the Irish people, and give Edward a kingdom. In May 1315 Edward Bruce landed in Ireland with 6000 men and a year later he was crowned “King of Ireland”. However, there was neither unity nor stability among the Irish. Some joined the Scots, but many more simply took advantage of the general disorder to settle old scores. Finally, in October 1318, excommunicated by the Pope, ill-supported or deserted by his Irish allies and with his own forces depleted, Edward Bruce was overthrown and killed.· Maud Bruce who married Hugh, 4th Earl of Ross and they had the following children:William, 5th Earl of RossMarjorie Ross who married Malise, 8th Earl of Strathearn. (See DeQuincy, Generation Eight)Eupheme Ross who married first to John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray and secondly to her first cousin once removed King Robert II Stuart. (See Generation Thirty-one)· Sir Thomas Bruce· Alexander Bruce, Dean of Glasgow· Nigel Bruce· Isabel Bruce· Christina Bruce· Margaret Bruce
Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland Born on July 11, 1274 at Writtle, Chelmsford, Essex Acceded on March 27, 1306 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire , died on June 7, 1329 at Cardoss Castle, Firth of Clyde, Scotland Interred at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland Robert the Bruce who was the victor of Bannockburn in 1314, established Scottish independence from England and is revered as one of Scotland’s greatest national heroes. (See Scotland: Bruce) Robert the Bruce married first to Isabel of Mar, daughter of Donald, Earl of Mar and granddaughter of Llwelyn Fawr “the Great” Iorwerth, Prince of Wales.(See Wales, Generation Thirty and Scotland: Donald Bane, Generation Seven) Robert the Bruce and Isabel of Mar had a daughter:
· Princess Marjorie Bruce, mentioned next.
Robert the Bruce married second by licence dated September 19, 1295 to Maud Fitz Alan, widow of Philip Burnell, Knight (died June 16, 1294) of Holgate,Shropsire; and daughter of John Fitz Alan, of Clun and Oswestry, Shropshire and his wife Isabel, daughter of Roger de Mortimer, Knight. They had no issue; this being perhaps the reason why this second marriage is not mentioned in some genealogies. This marriage was dissolved by divorce or annulment, presumably on the grounds of consanguinity as both Robert the Bruce and Maud Fitz Alan were descended from William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke (See Marshal, Generation Three) and Isabel de Clare. (See De Clare, Generation Four) Robert the Bruce married third in 1302 to Elizabeth de Burgh and they had the following children:· Maud (or Matilda) Bruce married Thomas Isaac (or Ysac); their daughter:Janet (or Joanna) Isaac married John de Ergardia, Lord of Lorn in Argyll; their daughter:Isabel de Ergardia of Lorn married John Stewart of Innermeath; their daughter:· Christian Stewart who is reputed to have married John (or James) de Dundas. This marriage and their daughter shown next are not mentioned in J. Drummond: Histories of the Families of Dunbar, Hume and Dundas, 1844. However, the daughter of Christian Stewart and John (or James) de Dundas is reputed to have been:(first name unknown) Dundas who married Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar.(See Livingston Generation Five)· Margaret Bruce who married William, 5th Earl of Sutherland.· David (II) Bruce, King of Scotland 1329 – 1371, d.s.p. (died without issue)· John Bruce who died in childhood.Robert the Bruce also had a number of natural children:· Sir Robert Bruce· Sir Neil Bruce of Carrick· Christina Bruce of Carrick· Margaret Bruce who married Robert Glen· Elizabeth Bruce who married Walter Oliphant, KnightThe marriages and children of Robert the Bruce, while generally agreed upon, seem to vary slightly from source to source. The details presented here are from Douglas Richarson: Magna Carta Ancestry, Baltimore, 2005 and Frederick Lewis Weis: The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Baltimore, 1999.
Princess Marjorie Bruce Died on March 2, 1316 at Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Although heavily pregnant, Marjorie went for a ride on her horse and either fell or was thrown off. She went into labour and her only child, Robert, was born by ceasarian section on March 2, 1316. Marjorie married in 1315 to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (See Scotland: Stewart and Bigod Generation Nine) and their son was:· Robert Stuart, King of Scotland, mentioned next.
Robert Stuart, King Robert II of Scotland Born on March 2, 1316 at Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland Acceded on March 26, 1371 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire, died on April 19, 1390 at Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire Robert Stuart was in command of the second division of the Scottish Army at Halidon Hill, and was one of the few who escaped the carnage of that disastrous day. He married about 1347 to Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan and they had the following children:· Margaret Stuart who married John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles.· Robert (John) Stuart, King Robert III of Scotland, 1390 – 1406 John Stuart felt that his name was too closely associated with John Baliol, so he adopted the title of King Robert III. He preferred to lead a quiet life, and although he attended several parliaments, he handed the reigns of government over to his brother, Robert Stuart of Fife.· Walter Stuart, Earl of Fife· Robert Stuart of Fife, Duke of Albany, mentioned next.· Alexander Stuart, “The Wolf of Badenoch”, Earl of Buchan. Alexander was appointed King’s Lieutenant in the North in 1372 and he imposed a reign of terror from his island stronghold of Lochindorb in the Moray moors. The savage highlanders understood his rough justice, and he brought a certain level of control to the region.· Marjory Stuart who married John de Dunbar, Earl of Moray.· Lady Jean Stuart who married 1st Sir John de Keith, 2nd Sir John Lyon, and 3rd Sir James Sandilands· Katherine Stuart who married to Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig· Elizabeth Stuart who married Thomas de la Haye, Great Constable of Scotland; and not to be confused with her half sisters shown next.Robert Stuart married secondly to his first cousin once removed, Eupheme Ross, widow of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray and a daughter of Hugh, Earl ofRoss and his wife Maud Bruce. (See Generation Twenty-eight) Robert and Eupheme had the following children:· David Stuart, Earl of Strathearn (died by 1389)· Walter Stuart, Earl of Atholl (died in 1437)· Elizabeth Stuart (also called Katherine or Jean) who married (dispensation February 22, 1374/75) Sir David Lindsay (1360 – 1406/7), 1st Earl of Crawford and Admiral of Scotland. Elizabeth Stuart and Sir David Lindsay had the following children:Sir Alexander Lindsay (1387 – 1438), Ambassador to England.Elizabeth Lindsay who married soon after December 20, 1400 to Robert Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine and 13th Earl of Mar (died in 1451 or 1452). They had a daughter:Christian Erskine who married to Patrick Graham, 1st Baron Graham (died 1466) and they had a daughter:· Elizabeth Graham who married in 1480 to William Livingston of Kilsyth. (See Livingson: Livingston of Kilsyth)· Egidia Stuart who married Sir William Douglas of Nithdale, a son of Archibald “the Grim”, 3rd Earl of Douglas. Their daughter:Egidia Douglas married Henry Sinclair, 2nd Earl of Orkney.(See Sinclair, Generation Six)
Robert Stuart of Fife, Duke of Albany, Earl of Menteith, Atholl, Buchan and Fife was the Governor of Scotland, Prime Minister to Robert III, and Regent to James I. Born about 1339 Died on September 3, 1420 at Stirling Castle Robert Stuart married first about 1361 to Mary (Margaret) Graham, Countess ofMenteith and they had the following children:· Murdoch Stuart, 2nd Duke of Albany· Isabel Stuart· Joan Stuart· Beatrix Stuart· Mary Stuart· Janet Stuart· Margaret StuartRobert Stuart married second after May 4, 1380 to Muriella de Keith and they had the following children:· John Stuart, Earl of Buchan· Andrew Stuart· Robert Stuart, Earl of Ross· Elizabeth Stuart, mentioned next.· Marjory Stuart
Elizabeth Stuart Married before June 28, 1413 to Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld who was executed (beheaded) a few days after the Black Dinner of 1440. (See Livingston, Generation Five) Elizabeth and Malcolm had the following children:· Malcolm Fleming who appears to have died young.· Robert Fleming, 1st Lord Fleming, mentioned next.· Margaret Fleming
Robert Fleming, 1st Lord Fleming Died: 1491. Robert married first to Lady Janet Douglas, daughter of James Douglas “The Gross,” 7th Earl of Douglas and his wife Beatrix Sinclair. (See Sinclair, Generation Eight) Robert Fleming and Janet Douglas had the following daughter:· Beatrice Fleming, mentioned next.Robert married second to Margaret Lindsay
Beatrice Fleming Beatrice married to James Livingston 3rd Lord Livingston of Callendar and they had a son:· William Livingston, 4th Lord Livingston of Callendar (See Livingston, Generation Eight)For the continuation of this line, see Livingston, Generation Eight
· Richard Thomson: An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta of King John, London, 1829· The Book of History (18 Volumes), London, 1914· Berhard Grun, The Timetables of History, New York, 1991· David Ross, Scotland: History of a Nation, Lomond Books, 1998· Frederick Lewis Weis: The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215. Baltimore, 1999· Frederick Lewis Weis: Ancestral Roots, Baltimore, 1999· Norman F. Cantor (ed.) The Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, New York, 1999· Sewell Vincent Sample: Letters· Gary Boyd Roberts, The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants, Baltimore, 2004· Douglas Richarson: Magna Carta Ancestry, Balitmore, 2005
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